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Mar 04, 2015

Characteristics of Effective Feedback

“To be effective, feedback needs to be clear, purposeful, meaningful, and compatible with students’ prior knowledge and to provide logical connections” (Hattie & Timperley, 2007, p. 104).

Task specific – feedback requires learning context and therefore needs to be task specific. There is no advantage to tangential conversations when providing feedback.

Self-regulation – feedback should encourage the learner’s self-regulation by enhancing self-efficacy and self-esteem. This concept corresponds with teaching learners how to learn.

Low task complexity – feedback should address tasks of low complexity. Goals should be broken down into manageable tasks, as this increases the effectiveness of feedback.

Timing – the timing of feedback is not as straight forward as some may think. Quick turnaround on the correctness of simple tasks benefits students. While students may prefer instantaneous feedback, the literature supports that task process feedback benefits from a delay where students have time to think about difficult tasks before receiving the feedback.

Praise – the most prevalent and least effective, praise disrupts the positive effects of feedback. It should be used cautiously, as students tend to enjoy private praise though it fails the need for task specificity.

Technology enhanced – used appropriately, technology has the ability to provide timely feedback, improve collaboration, increase social presence, increase dialogue, improve reflection, support learning principles, and increase student satisfaction. Consider using the technologies available at your school to optimize technology in providing students feedback.


To follow up on any of these ideas, please contact me at This Weekly Teaching Note was adapted from a contribution to the Teaching and Learning Writing Consortium hosted at Western Kentucky University and organized by Seneca College and New York Institute of Technology.

Jodie Hemerda
University of the Rockies

Julie Frese, Ph.D.
Director of Assessment and Academic Quality
University of the Rockies

Author: francine_glazer

Feb 25, 2015

Using the PEAR Approach to Develop Stronger Discussion Questions

Many faculty have either sent students home with discussion questions to prepare for a future class period or posted discussion questions online only to receive answers that miss the mark or don’t elicit quite the response that was desired. Thanks to Jim Berger at WKU, I have learned a better way to write discussion questions that uses a “pilot tested” process for development and leads to stronger, more reflective questions that help my students to connect with course content.

When developing questions for students, most of us tend to simply write the questions that we think will gain us the answer we want and hope that students will dig deeper. The problem is that many students won’t do anything more than a question asks them to do: asking them to “list” gets us bullet points, or asking them to “describe” may only yield a sentence when we wanted a paragraph. The PEAR approach to develop better discussion questions encourages critical thinking skills and more in-depth answers. What is the PEAR approach?

  • Personal – having a personal connection
  • Experiential – related to their experience (feelings)
  • Active – students must do something
  • Reflective – and think about how it impacted them

The PEAR approach is built on the framework of Kolb’s experiential learning style theory. It helps students to better process and retain information via a four stage learning cycle (McLeod, 2013). PEAR questions ask students to analyze the concepts in the readings and make connections between theory or practice and their personal lives. They can have students experiment with the ideas in the readings, share what they would have done differently as a result of their reflections in light of their new knowledge, or argue the opposite of a classmate’s position.

Throughout this course, we have practiced varying skills that lead to the creation of a successful research project. First, list three types of writing we have covered this term, and then argue how each one will or will not be beneficial to you in your future career and everyday life._

Good PEAR questions incorporate action verbs that can be mapped to a skill level on Bloom’s taxonomy (see Resources for a good listing of such verbs) and are developed using a careful and deliberate process:

  1. Identify what needs to be learned.
  2. Develop a question that assesses that knowledge using the PEAR approach.
  3. Administer the question to small group of students or colleagues. This step is often skipped, but this “peer review” or “piloting” often yields good feedback that can be used to more precisely shape the question. If your department has graduate students or student workers, they can be your best hope for this “test run,” as they are more likely to answer as your students will, unlike your colleagues.
  4. Analyze the results and make modifications. Note here that if #3 does not gain you the answers or types of answers you wanted to your question from most of your test subjects, this is a sign that you’re not asking what you think you might be asking. You may even want to repeat 3 and 4 a couple of times before moving to 5.
  5. Give question to students. Don’t be shy about asking students how they would have refined the question once they’ve answered it. This gives you a chance to hear how they think and gives them a chance to feel greater investment in the course (which leads to better course evaluations!).
  6. Analyze the results to determine if material was learned.
  7. Make modifications for next time.
  8. Repeat as needed to refine the question.

In an online course, PEAR questions should yield richer, more meaningful discussions on the discussion boards, in blogs, or however you choose to use them. In a face-to-face course, you can send your students home with PEAR questions to write out their answers and bring to class. These can be used as jump starters for a traditional discussion or as part of a “silent discussion” where students are paired or put in small groups to exchange papers and respond to one another’s (and subsequent) answers before coming back together as a class for a fuller discussion.


To follow up on any of these ideas, please contact me at This Weekly Teaching Note was adapted from a contribution to the Teaching and Learning Writing Consortium hosted at Western Kentucky University and organized by Seneca College and New York Institute of Technology.

Wren Mills, Ph.D.
Distance Learning and English,
Western Kentucky University

Author: francine_glazer

Feb 18, 2015

NYIT Faculty Talk about Teaching: Focus on International Students

Last week, NYIT faculty and staff members gathered – from Old Westbury, Manhattan, and Nanjing – to talk about effective strategies for teaching when you have a large number of students in your class who are not native English speakers. The conversation took place on the evening of Wednesday, February 11 (or the morning of the next day, for our Nanjing participant), and used Zoom videoconferencing to connect everyone. Participants exchanged ideas, strategies, and practical tips. Here are some of the highlights from the conversation.

How do you know your students understand what you’re saying in class?

  • Asking them is a good place to start, but bear in mind that sometimes students will tell you they do understand when in fact they do not. Furthermore, some cultures are more likely to ask questions, and others less so. You may want to use some quick check-in techniques to help both you and the students monitor their learning.
  • Some students are more likely to tell you what they do understand. One faculty member encourages his students to nod or shake their heads when he stops to check for understanding, rather than responding verbally. It feels less conspicuous to respond nonverbally.
  • Another faculty member noted that when she asks a question she will count silently to 10 before asking for responses, to give the students time to gather their thoughts.
  • A participant who was herself an international student previously talked about the complexity of disciplinary vocabulary, emphasized the importance of speaking slowly and clearly, and suggested providing students with written lists of specialized vocabulary so they can prepare in advance of class.

Do you modify written assignments or required reading, and if so, how?

  • Many students will think in their own language and then translate in order to write, or to ask or answer a question in class. All this mental processing is time consuming!
  • When you hear a word but do not see it, it can be hard to know what that word is. If you make video screencasts for your students, consider providing either a transcript or a list of key terms, bookmarked to the places in the video where they are used.
  • Writing longer pieces can be challenging, whether it is a research paper, a proposal, a lab report, or a technical document. Some of our participants give their students templates, and others devote some class time each week to a different section of the document, encouraging students to read each others’ work and providing feedback to teams or individuals.
  • The more practice students get at writing, the better they will become. Consider putting a question on the board before students come in, and having them write about that topic for the first 5–10 minutes of class. Letting your students gather their thoughts and articulate their ideas will enrich the discussion that follows.

Sometimes the students who would benefit most from office hours don’t come to them. How can you encourage them to do so?

  • In some cultures the relationship between students and professors is quite different than it is in the U.S. Providing opportunities to talk informally can be a good way to break the ice. For example, one engineering faculty member said she brought her students to the cybersecurity conference in September, and they were able to talk during the breaks between sessions about the material presented.
  • Mix up students in project teams. Assign them to teams with people from different countries and cultures. Students need to get to know one another to form productive teams.
  • Use downtime in labs and studios to hold mini-conferences with individual students.

What strategies do you use to connect with your students, to help them engage with the topic and feel more comfortable asking for help?

  • In some departments, all the faculty members are advisors to some of the students in the program. Have an initial face-to-face meeting with each student to establish a connection, and encourage the students to come to you with questions and concerns.
  • Comment on their work and engage them in conversation about it. Frequent feedback on assignments will let your students know that you are invested in their progress.

Join the conversation!

If you are interested in delving deeper, please join your colleagues next week for an extended conversation on this topic. The Center for Teaching and Learning will be offering an online workshop on these and related topics. We will use VoiceThread, an asynchronous discussion tool that is also available to all faculty for use in their courses. To register, please complete the form at

We hope to see you there!

Author: francine_glazer

Feb 11, 2015

Encourage Students to Evaluate the Quality of Information Sources

Students are notorious procrastinators. Assigning an annotated bibliography early in the term helps students structure their time. For example, if we expect students to cite primary sources in a literature review paper, students who delay locating sources might scramble to locate the required number of sources and cite sources of marginal relevance.

The annotated bibliography can encourage students to evaluate the quality of sources located in a database if we require students to locate a larger number of scholarly sources than we require the students to cite in the final paper. The annotated bibliography assignment might require each student to identify 2–3 sources they located in a database search that they thought would be useful but decided were not relevant or not useful. Ask students to explain in their annotations why a rejected source looked promising at first but was ultimately rejected.

When students identify and examine more materials than they are required to include in the final submission, they can break away from the habit of including every remotely relevant source they locate to meet minimum citation requirements for an assignment. Students can then begin to evaluate the merit of materials as cited sources. Students need practice making these decisions to build their information literacy skills in the analysis and evaluation of evidence.

If you are new to annotated bibliographies and want to try it as an assignment, NYIT librarians are available to work with you and your students. Customized information literacy sessions focused on the annotated bibliography can be scheduled at the Manhattan and Old Westbury Campuses, and Zoom sessions can be scheduled for online courses.

Can't make it to the library? No problem. Send your students for a one-on-one research consultation (​), or request an online guide or video tutorial geared specifically to the requirements of your assignment.


To follow up on any of these ideas, please contact one of our librarians, or contact me at This Weekly Teaching Note was adapted from a contribution to the Teaching and Learning Writing Consortium hosted at Western Kentucky University and organized by Seneca College and New York Institute of Technology.

Claudia J. Stanny, Ph.D., Director
Center for University Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
University of West Florida
Pensacola, FL

Author: francine_glazer

Feb 04, 2015

Early Semester Feedback: How is my Teaching?

I wanted to be proactive in solving problems in my class that might occur during my semester. In addition, I wanted to know what my students were feeling about the course, what difficulties, if any, they were experiencing. - NYIT faculty member, School of Education

We generally don’t get any feedback from our students until the end of the semester, when they may or may not complete the student evaluations of teaching. At that point, we are busy looking ahead to the following semester and don’t always make time to reflect on what went well and what we might improve.

Why not ask the students early in the semester?

Early Semester Feedback is a simple way to solicit detailed information from your students about how your course is going. You can then use this information to make modifications to your course that will improve student learning. It has the added benefit of promoting student metacognition: reflecting on their learning process and how it might be improved.

There are many ways to gather this information. If you’d like assistance from the Center for Teaching and Learning, we can facilitate the process. (View the Early Semester Feedback questions.) CTL staff will assist you in setting up the survey, inviting the students to complete it, and analyzing the survey results to decide how to best respond to your students’ needs. Sometimes your response might include making a change to an aspect of the course. Sometimes your response might be a conversation with the students in which you explain the rationale you used in designing the course, and how they might engage better with it.

Some guidelines:

Introduce the idea of the survey to your students in advance. One reason for the low response rate on end-of-semester student evaluations of teaching is that students don’t believe their responses matter. Tell your students that you are doing this survey early in the semester specifically for the purpose of improving the course, and you will likely see high participation. (There’s an added benefit that students who participate in an early-semester feedback process are more likely to participate in end-of-semester evaluations - and generally rank their professors more favorably.)

I obtained a lot of useful information that I cannot get from the end-semester course evaluation … It’s only worth participating if you are actually willing to change what you’re doing based on the students’ responses. - NYIT faculty member, School of Engineering & Computing Sciences

Consider student responses carefully. Look at the positive responses first! It’s always good to see what we’re doing well. Then, look at their suggestions for improvement. Discard the outliers (e.g., this room is too hot!), and group the remainder into categories:

  • ideas you can implement this semester (e.g., returning homework assignments more quickly);
  • ideas you would have to implement in a subsequent semester (e.g., changing the grading structure of the course); and
  • ideas that you will not change for pedagogical reasons (e.g., the number of exams).

Respond quickly to student feedback and thank them for their input. Give students a summary of the most frequent responses, so they know what their peers said, also. Plan on sharing 3 - 5 items with them, and make them a mix of positive comments and suggestions for improvement. Tell them what you will change in response to their comments. If there are other aspects of the course that you will change in a subsequent semester, tell the students why those things have to wait. If students requested something that just isn’t feasible, explain why the structure you have developed is important to helping them learn. And finally, let students know what their classmates are doing that is helping them to learn, and encourage them to try something new as well.

I modified the course syllabus to address some of the issues raised by students. One example – more graded homework, fewer quizzes in class - NYIT faculty member, College of Arts and Sciences

Keep your tone positive. Thank the students for their comments and suggestions. Make it clear that you respect their role in making the course work, and invite them to be your partner in improving the course. For example, if students tell you that you talk too softly, ask them to remind you during class if your voice drops. It is important not to seem defensive, angry, or over-apologetic because these reactions can undermine students’ perceived value of future evaluations.


  • Brown, M. J. (2008). Student perceptions of teaching evaluations. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(2), 177.
  • Cohen, P. A. (1980). Effectiveness of student-rating feedback for improving college instruction: A meta-analysis of findings. Research in higher education, 13(4), 321–341.
  • Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Hunt, N. (2012). Does Mid-Semester Feedback Make a Difference?. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 13–20.
  • Pardo, A., Estevez-Ayres, I., Basanta-Val, P., & Fuentes-Lorenzo, D. (2011). Course quality improvement using mid-semester feedback. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(4), 366–376.
  • Wickramasinghe, S. R., & Timpson, W. M. (2006). Mid-Semester student feedback enhances student learning. Education for Chemical Engineers, 1(1), 126–133.

Author: francine_glazer

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Dominique West Dominique West (B.S. '10)
Office: NYIT Bookstore
Campus: Old Westbury
Donna Darcy Donna Darcy
Clinical Instructor
Department: Nursing
Campus: Old Westbury
Beverly J. Butcher Beverly J. Butcher, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Chair, & Director, NYIT Center for Humanities and Culture at NUPT
Department: English
Campus: Nanjing